Research and Reports

Our research on cranial electrotherapy stimulation is so good even our competitors use it. Every study included in this presentation is exclusively on patented Alpha-Stim technology. It should not be applied to other devices, even in the same category, because the waveform parameters are very different. After all, morphine and aspirin are both in the analgesics category but have very different effects and adverse events.

This bibliography is divided into the following sections:



Graphic Summary of Insomnia StudiesDownload PDF

Randomized Controlled Trials

Lande, R. Gregory and Gragnani, Cynthia. Efficacy of cranial electric stimulation for the treatment of insomnia: A randomized pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 21(1):8-13, 2013. Download Article

Case Series and Reports

Hare, Jean P., Misialek, Leah H., Palis, Katy and Wong, Charmin. Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Therapy to Treat Behavioral Health Symptoms in a Combat Operational Setting. Military Medicine. 2016; 181(11):1410-1412. Download Article

Clark, Nancy, Mills, Daniel & Marchant, Jeremy. Evaluation of the potential efficacy of the Alpha-Stim SCS in the Horse. DeMontfort University Equestrian Centre and Field Station, Caythorpe, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. January, 2000. Download Article


Randomized Controlled Trials

Graphic Summary of Pain Studies – Download PDF

Randomized Controlled Trials

Taylor, Ann Gill, Anderson, Joel G., Riedel, Shannon L., Lewis, Jante E., Kinser, Patricia A., and Bourguignon, Cheryl. Cranial electrical stimulation improves symptoms and functional status in individuals with fibromyalgia. Pain Management Nursing. 2013 Dec;14(4):327-335. Download article

Taylor, Ann Gill, Anderson, Joel G., Riedel, Shannon L., Lewis, Janet E. and Bourguignon, Cheryl. A randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study of the effects of cranial electrical stimulation on activity in brain pain processing regions in individuals with fibromyalgia. Explore. 2013; 9(1):32-40. Download article

Tan, Gabriel, Rintala, Diana, Jensen, Mark P., Richards, J. Scott, Holmes, Sally Ann, Parachuri, Rama, Lashgari-Saegh, Shamsi and Price, Larry R. Efficacy of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury: a multi-site randomized controlled trial with a secondary 6-month open-label phase. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2011; 34(3):285-296. Download article

Rintala, Diana H., Tan, Gabriel, Willson, Pamela , Bryant, Mon S., and Lai, Eugene C. H. Feasibility of Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation for Pain in Persons with parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s Disease. 2010. 8 pages. Download Article

Tan, Gabriel, Rintala, Diana H., Thornby, John, Yang, June, Wade, Walter, and Vasilev, Christine. Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation to Treat Pain Associated with Spinal Cord Injury.Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 2006; 43(4):461-474. Presented at the South Central VA Health Care Network’s Pain Management Initiative 2nd Annual Pain Management Symposium: Campaign Against Pain. Jackson, Mississippi, April 7, 2006. Download Article

Cork, Randall C., Wood, Patrick, Ming, Norbert, Shepherd, Clifton, Eddy, James, Price, Larry The Effect of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) on Pain Associated with Fibromyalgia. The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology.  2004; 8(2). Download Article

Tan, G., Rintala, D., Herrington, R., Yang, J., Wade, W., Vasilev, C. and Shanti, B.F. Treating Spinal Cord Injury Pain With Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2003; 26(3). Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Paraplegia Society, Las Vegas, Nevada, September 2-4, 2003. Download Poster

Lichtbroun, Alan S., Raicer, Mei-Ming C., and Smith, Ray B. The Treatment of Fibromyalgia with Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology. 2001; 7(2):72-78. Presented at the Fifteenth Annual International Symposium on Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics, Columbia University, New York, October 1999. Download Article

Sizer P, Sawyer S, Brismee J, Jones K, Bruce J, Slauterbeck J. The Effect of Microcurrent Stimulation on Postoperative Pain After Patellar Tendon-Bone Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Presented at the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference and Exposition, Indianapolis, Indiana; June, 2000.

Heffernan, Michael. The Effect of Variable Microcurrents on EEG Spectrum and Pain Control. Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine. 1997; 4(10):4-11. Download Article

Zimmerman, Stephen I, & Lerner, Fred N. Biofeedback and Electromedicine Reduce the Cycle of Pain Spasm Pain in Low Back Patients. Medical Electronics. June 1989; 117:108-120. Doctoral dissertation (SZ), City University Los Angeles, 284 pages, 1987. Download Article

Roth, Peter M, & Thrash, William J. Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Controlling Pain Associated with Orthodontic Tooth Movement. American Journal of Orthodontics. 1986; 90(2):132-138. Download Article

Open Clinical Trials

Tan, Gabriel, Dao, Tam K., Smith, Donna L., Robinson, Andrew and Jensen, Mark P. Incorporating Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Therapies to Expand Psychological Services to Veterans Suffering From Chronic Pain. Psychological Services. 2010; 7(3):148–161. Download Article

Holubec, Jerry T. Cumulative Response From Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) for Chronic Pain Practical Pain Management. 2009; 9(9):80-83. Download Article

Tae-Kyu Lee, Kwan-Sung Lee, Shin-Soo Jeun, Young-Kil Hong, Chun-Kun Park, Joon-Ki, Moon-Chan Kim. The control of chronic pain using Microcurrent Electrical Therapy and Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation. From the Department of Neurosurgery, Kangnam St. Mary’s Hospital, College Of Medicine, and The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Presented at the Korea Society for Stereotactic & Functional Neurosurgery, April 14, 2004.

Kulkarni, Arun D. and Smith, Ray B. The Use of Microcurrent Electrical Therapy and Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in Pain Control. Clinical Practice of Alternative Medicine. 2001; 2(2):99-102. Download Article

Case Series and Reports

Keizer B, Sposato L, and Yancosek K. A Progressive Treatment for a Chronic Progressive Disease: The War Against Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. The Pain Practitioner. 2016; 6(1):26-31. Download Article

Smith, Ray B. Is Microcurrent Stimulation Effective in Pain Management? An Additional Perspective. American Journal of Pain Management. 2001; 11(2):62-66. Download Article

Alpher, Elliott J. and Kirsch, Daniel L. Traumatic brain injury and full body reflex sympathetic dystrophy patient treated with cranial electrotherapy stimulation. American Journal of Pain Management, 8(4):124-128, 1998. Download Article

Bauer, William. Electrical Treatment of Severe Head and Neck Cancer Pain. Archives of Otolaryngology. 1983; 109(6):382-383. Download Article